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A Brief History of Amazon 

Amazon.com, the world's largest online retailer, has a storied history that began in a garage and evolved into a global e-commerce and technology giant. 

Founded by Jeffrey Preston Bezos in 1994 as an online bookstore, Amazon has since evolved into a global conglomerate, touching nearly every aspect of our lives, from the way we buy goods and services to how we store data and access entertainment. 

Its story is one of relentless innovation, audacious expansion, and a commitment to customer satisfaction that has made it one of the most influential and transformative companies in the 21st century. 

In this exploration, we will journey through Amazon's fascinating history, its diverse range of products and services, its impact on various industries, and its ongoing mission to reshape the way we live and interact with technology in the digital age.

History Behind the Building of Amazon

While Jeff Bezos was a student at Princeton, he initially aspired to embark on a career in the fields of physics or mathematics. However, his trajectory shifted when he encountered a partial differential equation that proved insurmountable. 

In an attempt to solve this problem, Bezos and his roommate dedicated three hours to the task, ultimately opting to enlist the assistance of a fellow classmate, Yasantha Rajakarunanayake.

Yasantha adeptly and swiftly resolved the equation, leading Bezos to the realization that his true calling did not lie in the domains of mathematics or physics. Consequently, he completed his studies at Princeton with degrees in electrical engineering and computer science. 

Bezos holds the belief that in the majority of professions, being in the 90th percentile signifies making a meaningful contribution to your field. However, in theoretical physics, you need to rank among the top 50 globally to have a significant impact. This perspective prompted him to reassess his career choices, ultimately leading him to explore other avenues, ultimately culminating in the birth of Amazon. Without this unique realization during his college days, the existence of Amazon would have been unthinkable. 

However, right after graduating from Princeton, Bezos landed his initial job on Wall Street. He took on a role at the Fitel Company, where his primary job was to establish a global trade network for the company. After that, Bezos worked in the position of vice president at Bankers Trust. Eventually, he transitioned into a computer science role at D.E. Shaw & Co.

In 1994, Bezos made the pivotal decision to join the internet boom and conceived the notion of using the Internet as a platform to distribute books to a wide audience.

1994: Establishing the Groundwork in Seattle

Bezos and his then-spouse MacKenzie embarked on a cross-country road trip from New York to Seattle. During the journey, he formulated the business plan for Amazon and made the decision to establish the initial company in the confines of his own garage.

Jeff Bezos initiated the creation of Amazon as an internet-based bookstore. This choice was driven by Washington's absence of a state sales tax, which enabled Amazon to conduct sales across a wide geographical range without the requirement to collect sales tax from its clientele.

Bezos kickstarted Amazon's funding with a $10,000 personal investment, and he, along with his ex-wife MacKenzie and a small team, managed the early operations of Amazon from a garage located in their rented residence in Bellevue, Washington.

Initially, Bezos named his company "Cadabra." However, a pivotal moment occurred when he overheard a lawyer inadvertently mispronounce it as "cadaver." 

Bezos made the decision to rebrand the company as "Amazon.com."

Before finalizing the name, Bezos conducted thorough research in the dictionary. He deliberately selected a name commencing with the letter 'A' because it would position the company at the top of alphabetical lists. Moreover, he christened his company "Amazon" after the planet's largest river, retaining the domain name Amazon.com. His grand vision was to transform his online bookstore into the world's largest.

Within just four months of its establishment, the company was surpassing sales of over 100 books daily. Bezos accomplished more than merely establishing a bookstore, he forged an online community. During its early stages, the website was groundbreaking by enabling ordinary consumers to craft product reviews online. This innovation not only attracted individuals seeking to purchase books but also those keen on researching them before making a purchase.


1994-1999: The Garage Startup Era

  • Amazon's story began in Jeff Bezos's garage, where the company was founded as an online bookstore in July 1994.
  • In July 1995, Amazon initiated its services in Washington. 
  • During the year 1995, Tom Alberg from the Madrona Venture Group made a $100,000 investment in Amazon, which resulted in a substantial increase in the company's sales. Within just four months of operation, Amazon was selling more than 100 books daily.
  • In 1997, Amazon expanded its website by incorporating movie videos and music CDs into its offerings.
  • In May 1997, Amazon conducted its initial public offering of stock, quickly followed by the incorporation of five additional product categories in its inventory. These new product categories encompass toys, video games, electronics, software, and home improvement items.
  • In 1999, Time Magazine acknowledged Amazon's achievement in popularizing online shopping and honored Jeff Bezos as their “Person of the Year”.
  • During that very year, Amazon made its inaugural foray into the publishing industry. The company acquired a dormant publishing label and utilized it to release a few books. However, the imprint disappeared relatively quickly.

2000-2005: Diversification and Growth

  • The early 2000s saw Amazon expand its product catalog to include a wide range of consumer goods, from electronics to toys, becoming a one-stop shop for online shoppers.
  • Amazon introduced the concept of third-party sellers and Amazon Marketplace, allowing other businesses to sell their products on the platform.
  • Starting in June 2000, Amazon introduced a logo design featuring a smiling, curved arrow that connected the letters from A to Z.
  • Though, Amazon did not foresee any profits for a period spanning 4 to 5 years. The sluggish growth led to discontent among stockholders who were expecting returns on their investments. This raised significant doubts about the company's long-term survival.
  • In 2001, Amazon managed to stay afloat and turned its first-ever profit. With revenues surpassing $1 billion, it became evident that Bezos' business model was poised for success.
  • In 2002, the company launched Amazon Web Services (AWS), offering cloud computing services that would ultimately become a cornerstone of its success and a dominant force in the technology sector.
  • In 2005, Amazon Prime was introduced, providing subscribers with free two-day shipping on millions of items and marking the beginning of the company's foray into subscription-based services.

2006-2016: Innovations and Technological Advancements

  • Amazon introduced its revolutionary Kindle e-reader in 2007, changing the way people read and buy books, and later expanding into e-books, audiobooks, and self-publishing through Kindle Direct Publishing. 
  • In 2010, most people opted for eBooks from Amazon rather than physical books.
  • In 2011, the online company entered into a significant business negotiation related to the Kindle Fire.
  • In 2013, Amazon launched an online marketplace known as Amazon Art, dedicated to fine art, where they showcased original creations by renowned artists like Claude Monet and Norman Rockwell.
  • In 2014, Amazon introduced its inaugural Amazon Fire TV Stick, which is one of the many streaming media devices in Amazon's extensive product range.
  • In 2014, the tech company revealed the Fire phone to the public with the aim of providing customers access to media streaming services. Regrettably, the project turned out to be a failure, resulting in substantial losses for Amazon.
  • In 2015, Amazon introduced the widely-used in-home virtual assistant, Amazon Alexa, to consumers.
  • In 2016, Amazon also brought the Alexa-equipped Echo Dot for consumers.

2017- 2020: International Expansion and Acquisitions 

  • In 2017, Amazon disclosed its intentions to purchase Whole Foods, a premium supermarket chain boasting over 400 stores, to the public. The acquisition of Whole Foods Market marked Amazon's entry into the grocery and physical retail industry.
  • In 2018, Amazon launched Amazon Go, a chain of cashierless grocery stores. 
  • Ongoing investments in artificial intelligence, automation, and logistics have allowed Amazon to innovate in areas such as Amazon Go stores and the deployment of robots in its warehouses.
  • The surge in at-home shopping during the COVID-19 pandemic heightened consumers' dependence on Amazon, and this trend is expected to continue its growth.
  • In 2020, Amazon more than 25 years in business, announced that Bezos had decided to step down as the company's CEO and appointed Andy Jassy as the President and CEO of Amazon who had previously served as the SVP of Amazon Web Services from 2003.  

2021- Present: Ongoing Expansion and Diverse Ventures

  • Amazon announced plans for Project Kuiper, an ambitious satellite internet project aimed at providing internet access worldwide.
  • The company's commitment to sustainability has led to initiatives like "The Climate Pledge," which aims to make Amazon net zero carbon by 2040.
  • Amazon remains at the forefront of innovation with endeavors in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and its ongoing efforts to enhance the customer experience. 

Amazon Products and Services

  • Amazon Marketplace: Amazon's online retail platform allows third-party vendors to present and offer their products in conjunction with Amazon's own merchandise.
  • Amazon Fresh: Amazon's grocery pickup and delivery service can be accessed in U.S. cities and a handful of global locations. Shoppers have the option to make a grocery order via the Amazon Fresh website or the Amazon mobile app, with the choice of having their groceries delivered to their doorstep or collecting them in-store.
  • Amazon Vine: Introduced in 2007, Amazon Vine assists product manufacturers and publishers in acquiring reviews for their products, ultimately aiding consumers in making well-informed buying decisions.
  • Woot: Purchased by Amazon in 2010, Woot provides daily rotating limited-time offers and exclusive deals. This store offers both refurbished products and new items with limited stock availability. Prime members receive complimentary shipping.
  • Zappos: Amazon acquired Zappos in 2009. Zappos, an online seller specializing in footwear and apparel, offers an extensive selection of brands, such as Nike, Sperry, Adidas, and Uggs.
  • Amazon Handmade: Enables artisans to sell handcrafted products to customers around the world.
  • Amazon Kindle: Amazon's inaugural e-reader, the Kindle, permits users to peruse, purchase, and enjoy e-books, magazines, and newspapers available from the Kindle Store.
  • Amazon Fire Tablet: Formerly recognized as the Kindle Fire, Amazon's well-received and prominent Fire tablet rivals Apple's iPad.
  • Amazon Fire TV: This series of Amazon's digital devices and streaming media players transmits high-definition video content over the internet to a connected TV.
  • Amazon Alexa: This voice-activated personal assistant, powered by artificial intelligence and residing in the cloud, is engineered to respond to questions, engage with users, and execute various tasks and instructions.
  • Amazon Echo: Amazon Echo, a smart home device from Amazon, features a built-in speaker and connects to Alexa. It has the capability to execute a range of tasks, like providing weather updates, generating shopping lists, and managing other smart devices such as lights, switches, and TVs.
  • Amazon Echo Dot: A more compact, disc-shaped iteration of the original Amazon Echo, the Echo Dot is designed to fit seamlessly in any room and is capable of responding to inquiries, playing music, and reciting news and other articles. 
  • Amazon Echo Show: The Amazon Echo Show functions in a manner akin to Alexa. However, it differentiates itself by including a 7-inch touchscreen display, allowing users to watch videos, enjoy music, and engage in video calls with other Echo users.
  • Amazon Astro: Amazon's initial home monitoring robot, compatible with Alexa, is engineered to assist with a variety of domestic responsibilities. These tasks encompass home surveillance, providing notifications and alerts for elderly care, and tracking owners as they move from one room to another to facilitate entertainment like TV shows, music, or podcasts.
  • Amazon Prime: This subscription service offers benefits like free two-day shipping, access to Amazon Prime Video, Prime Music, and other exclusive deals.
  • Amazon Prime Video: A streaming service that offers movies, TV shows, and original content.
  • Amazon Music: A music streaming service with a vast library of songs and playlists.
  • Amazon Home Services: A platform to find and schedule local services like cleaning, plumbing, and home improvement.

Amazon’s Subsidiaries and Acquisitions

Amazon has an extensive list of subsidiaries and acquisitions across various industries. Here are some notable ones:

  • Amazon Web Services (AWS): Amazon's cloud computing platform, offers a wide range of cloud services.
  • Zappos: An online shoe and clothing shop acquired by Amazon in 2009. 
  • Twitch: A platform for live-streaming video games and other content purchased by Amazon in 2014. 
  • Audible: An audiobook and spoken-word entertainment service acquired by Amazon in 2008. 
  • Ring: A home security and smart home company known for its video doorbells, Amazon took ownership in 2018. 
  • IMDb: An online database of films, television programs, and more acquired by Amazon in 1998. 
  • Whole Foods Market: A chain of upscale grocery stores acquired by Amazon in 2017. 


Amazon stands as a true marvel of modern business and technology. What began as an online bookstore in a garage has grown into a global juggernaut that has not only revolutionized the way we shop but has significantly impacted various industries, from e-commerce and cloud computing to artificial intelligence and entertainment. Amazon's relentless focus on customer satisfaction, innovation, and its ability to adapt and diversify has allowed it to remain at the forefront of the digital age.

Throughout its history, Amazon has continually pushed boundaries, defying traditional retail norms and redefining convenience and customer service. From pioneering the Kindle e-reader and launching Amazon Web Services (AWS) to acquiring Whole Foods and delving into the world of AI with Alexa, Amazon's journey is marked by groundbreaking achievements.

Its impact on the global economy, job market, and the way we consume media is undeniable. Amazon's vision of becoming the world's most customer-centric company has propelled it to remarkable heights. While its growth has not been without challenges and controversies, Amazon's history reflects the power of innovation and adaptability in a rapidly evolving world.

As Amazon continues to expand its reach and explore new frontiers, it remains an intriguing and influential player in the ever-evolving landscape of commerce and technology. Its history serves as a testament to the potential of a bold idea and the dedication to realizing it, forever changing the way we live and interact with the digital realm.

Ayrin Saleha Ria works at Future Startup as a full-time Research Associate. She has a background in Applied Sociology. Before joining the FS team, she worked and volunteered with a number of social organizations. As someone who comes from a social science background, she takes a deep interest in research around important social-economic challenges in our society. A voracious reader, Ayrin is passionate about working for the betterment of society, takes a deep interest in human society and behavioral science, and loves books.

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